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Typically, the bolt consists of a tube of metal inside of which the firing mechanism is housed, and which has at the front or rear of the tube several metal knobs, or "lugs", which serve to lock the bolt in place. The operation can be done via a rotating bolt, a lever, or a number of systems. For example, one setup is a straight-pull design that use a rotating bolt, such as the German Blaser R93 rifle. Straight-pull designs have seen a great deal of use, though manual turn-bolt designs are what is most commonly thought of in reference to a bolt-action design due to the type ubiquity. As a result the bolt-action term is often reserved for more modern types of rotating bolt-designs when talking about a specific weapon's type of action, however both straight-pull and rotating bolt rifles are types of bolt-action rifles. Lever-action and pump-action weapons must still operate the bolt, but they are usually grouped separately from bolt-actions that are operated by a handle directly attached to a rotating bolt.
On used bolt-action firearms, especially, the headspace should be checked prior to shooting, to ensure that the spacing is correct to prevent over-stressing chambers and cartridge brass. Some bolt-action rifles, such as the Lee-Enfield SMLE, have a series of different length bolts available to extend the service life of the rifle, for taking up any wear of the bolt and chamber occurring from long years of service.Loading Edit
Russian Nagant rifle
x procedure than later designs, however, as the firing pin had to be independently primed and activated, and the lever was only used to move the bolt.Benefits and Drawbacks Edit
Bolt action firearms have earned a reputation for being more powerful than any semi automatic rifle. They are also far easier to accurize than semi-automatic firearms because a semi-auto has far more moving parts than a bolt action, gases at different pressures bled and diverted, and a host of spring tensions and sliding surfaces, it's just plain complicated to accurize a semi-auto and keep it firing at match-grade quality. For this reason, bolt actions are still the choice of many target shooters and snipers. This is true because of the way that bolt action rifles close the chamber. When a bullet fires inside the chamber, the force from the explosion is completely directed at propelling the bullet down the barrel (In an autoloader, part of the energy is used to cycle the action). Also, a bolt action's only moving parts when firing are the pin and spring. Since it has fewer moving parts and a small lock time, it has less of a chance of being thrown off target and less of a chance to jam. Finally, since the spent cartridge has to be manually removed instead of automatically ejected, it helps a sniper remain better hidden, since not only is the cartridge not flung into the air and to the ground, possibly giving away the sniper's position, but the cartridge can be removed when most prudent, allowing the sniper to remain still until reloading is tactically feasible. Bolt actions are also easier to operate from a prone position than other manually repeating mechanisms and work well with box magazines which are easier to fill and maintain than tubular magazines. However, there's been enough accumulated experience in tuning semi-autos that a modern semi-auto can be as accurate as any bolt action if well made.
Some disadvantages of the bolt action is that it is the slowest of all the major manual repeating mechanisms as it requires four distinct movements (as opposed to 2 for lever action and pump action firearms) and requires that the trigger hand leave the gun and regrip the weapon after each shot, usually resulting in the shooter having to realign his sight and reacquire the target for every shot. It is also not ambidextrous.History Edit
Throughout the 1800s breech-loading bolt-actions continued to develop following a steady progression, seeing widespread adoption and continual improvements in design. World War I marked the height of the type's use though automatic loading designs were introduced during the war.
During the build up prior to World War II, the military bolt-action rifle began to be superseded by the semi-automatic rifle and later assault rifles, though it remained the primary weapon of some (mostly Russian) infantry for the duration of the war. The bolt-action is still common today among sniper rifles, as the design has potential for superior accuracy, reliability, lesser weight, and the ability to control loading over the faster rate of fire that alternatives allow. There are however, many semi-automatic sniper rifle designs, especially in the designated marksmen role.
Today, bolt-action rifles are chiefly used as hunting rifles. These rifles can be used to hunt anything from vermin, to deer, to large game, especially big game caught on a safari, as they are adequate to deliver a single lethal shot from a safe distance.
Bolt-action shotguns are considered a rarity among modern firearms, but were formerly a commonly used action for .410 entry-level shotguns, as well as for low-cost 12 gauge shotguns. The XM26 Lightweight Shotgun System (LSS) is the most advanced and recent example, which may hold the distinction of being the first bolt-action shotgun to be used in military service. Although used limitedly and not officially adopted by US military, the XM26 is well-liked by soldiers issued with them in Afghanistan, being able to attach themselves to M-16 rifles or M4 carbines to increase the close-range firepower needed by infantrymen. Mossberg 12ga bolt-action shotguns were briefly popular in Australia after the 1997 firearms law changes
Some pistols are bolt action, although this is uncommon.Major Bolt Action systems Edit
There are three major bolt action system designs: the Mauser system, the Lee-Enfield system, and the Mosin-Nagant system. Both differ in the way the bolt fits into the receiver, how the bolt rotates as it is being operated, the number of locking lugs holding the bolt in place as the gun is fired, and whether the action is cocked on the opening of the bolt (as in the Mauser system) or the closing of the bolt (as in the Lee-Enfield system).Mauser Edit
The Mauser bolt system was introduced in the Mauser Gewehr 98 and is the most common bolt action system in the world, being in use in nearly all modern hunting rifles and the majority of military bolt-action rifles until the middle of the 20th century (besides the Mauser K98, the Mauser bolt system was also used in the American M1903 Springfield rifle, the Japanese Arisaka Type 38 and Type 99 rifles, and the Anglo-American M1917 Enfield). The Mauser system is stronger than that of the Lee-Enfield because of the third locking lug present at the rear of the bolt, and is able to handle higher pressure cartridges (i.e. "Magnum" calibre centrefire rifle cartridges), unlike the Lee-Enfield or Mosin-Nagant actions. The Mauser system, due to its "cock on opening" operation (the upward rotation of the bolt when the rifle is opened cocks the action) has a slower rate of fire than the "cock on closing" systems used in the Lee-Enfield.Lee-Enfield SMLE Edit
The Lee-Enfield bolt action system was introduced in 1889 with the Lee-Metford and later Lee-Enfield rifles (the bolt system is named after the designer and the Royal Small Arms Factory at Enfield), and is a "cock on closing" action in which the forward thrust of the bolt cocks the action. This allows for a much faster rate of fire (See Mad Minute), but the system is unsuitable for use with modern "Magnum" calibre centerfire rifle cartridges. Interestingly, the Lee-Enfield bolt system features a removable bolthead, which allows the rifle's headspace to be adjusted by simply removing the bolthead and replacing it with one of a different length as required. In the years leading up to WWII, the Lee-Enfield bolt system was used in numerous commercial sporting and hunting rifles manufactured by such firms in the UK as BSA, LSA, and Parker-Hale, as well as by SAF Lithgow in Australia. Vast numbers of ex-military SMLE Mk III rifles were sporterised post-WWII to create cheap, effective hunting rifles, and the Lee-Enfield bolt system is used in the M10 and No 4 Mk IV rifles manufactured by Australian International Arms.
The Mosin-Nagant action differs from the Mauser and Lee-Enfield actions, in that it has a separate bolthead which rotates with the bolt and the bearing lugs, in contrast to the Mauser system where the bolthead is a non-removable part of the bolt are a single piece and rotate as such, or the Lee-Enfield system where the bolthead remains stationary and the bolt body rotates. The Mosin-Nagant bolt is a somewhat complicated affair, but is extremely rugged and durable. Like the Lee-Enfield bolt system, the Mosin-Nagant system is not suitable for use with modern "Magnum" calibre centrefire rifle cartridges. Although the bolt system is not employed in any commercial sporting rifles, the Mosin-Nagant rifle is the most numerous bolt-action rifle ever produced and large numbers of them have been sporterised for use as hunting rifles in the years since WWII.
Some rifles- such as the Swedish Mauser and the Pattern 1914 Enfield use a hybrid of the two systems. The Model 96 and Model 38 Swedish Mausers, for example, use a Mauser bolt which is of a "cock on closing" closing design (giving it a faster rate of fire than the Mauser K98 or the M1903 Springfield, but still not quite as fast as the Lee-Enfield), whereas the Pattern 1914 Enfield uses a system whereby the action is half-cocked as the bolt is opened, with the forward thrust of the bolt on reloading fully cocking the rifle.
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The Classic A-Bolt II. Custom rifle accuracy right out of the box. The classic Browning A-Bolt (often referred to as the A-Bolt II) delivers dependable, pinpoint accuracy that exceeds the stringent standards of the modern rifleman. The renowned A-Bolt has been produced in popular chamberings, materials, and finishes to satisfy your needs in any hunting or shooting situation.
A very sophisticated bolt action. With a short 60° lift, the bolt incorporates a non-rotating bolt sleeve that runs the full length of the bolt. When unlocked, three guide ribs on the bolt sleeve align with the three locking lugs to allow the bolt to slide smoothly. When locked, these three lugs provide massive bolt strength. The A-Bolt II feeds very smoothly because of its unique, patented cartridge depressor that stays in position, independent of the bolt rotation, as the bolt slides gently over the cartridges in the magazine. The bolt face is recessed, completely surrounding the cartridge base. A cocking indicator located at the rear of the bolt offers visual and tactile firing pin status.Limited Distribution
Today's A-Bolt II rifles are in limited production and are often far more specialized than in the past. Be aware that they are available only in limited distribution at a limited number of dealers, in special models only. But the features that made it famous for decades are still there. Have a look at A-Bolt II rifles and see for yourself why, in the history of Browning, the A-Bolt II is considered one of the best Browning bolt actions ever made, excelling in versatility, accuracy and performance.A very sophisticated bolt action.
With a short 60° lift, the bolt incorporates a non-rotating bolt sleeve that runs the full length of the bolt. When unlocked, three guide ribs on the bolt sleeve align with the three locking lugs to allow the bolt to slide smoothly. When locked, these three lugs provide massive bolt strength. The A-Bolt II feeds very smoothly because of its unique, patented cartridge depressor that stays in position, independent of the bolt rotation, as the bolt slides gently over the cartridges in the magazine. The bolt face is recessed, completely surrounding the cartridge base. A cocking indicator located at the rear of the bolt offers visual and tactile firing pin status.
The barrel is free floating and glass bedded at the recoil lug and front of receiver to maintain the proper spacing around the barrel for consistent accuracy. The recessed muzzle crown helps protect the rifling. Barrels are triple checked for interior finish, straightness and air-gauged for uniformity.
A chrome-plated trigger sear provides cleaner, crisper trigger pull. Screw adjustable and pre-set at approximately 4 lbs.
Hinged floorplate with detachable box magazine makes it simple and fast to load a spare magazine.Magazine Capacity
Magnum calibers, including WSM: Three in magazine, one in chamber. Standard calibers: Four in magazine, one in chamber. 223 Rem.: Five in magazine, one in chamber. For A-Bolt Micro Hunter only: Three in magazine, one in chamber.Other Aspects of the A-Bolt II Rifle System The BOSS® System
Ballistic Optimizing Shooting System. The tunable BOSS was available with some A-Bolt II models over the years. An interchangeable, non-ported BOSS-CR is included at no extra charge.Personalized Engraving
To give your A-Bolt a personalized touch, your name may be engraved on the bolt body. Click on the link for information or call (800) 333-3288. Not available on the Mountain Ti model.What is an A-Bolt? The A-Bolt, A-Bolt II and AB3
The A-Bolt was built in two main series. The original A-Bolt and the A-Bolt II. Both are very similar rifles and are considered part of a design family. The new AB3 -- sometimes also referred to as an A-Bolt -- is a different model and design. Accessories, such as bases and rings, magazines, etc. made for the original A-Bolt and A-Bolt II will not fit the AB3.
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2017.
Like any high-powered attorney who charges $100,000 for a retainer, bolt always seems to be one step ahead of the competition.
But when member organizations started to bolt, the WCF finally caved.
But for once we see something new: The singer reloads the bolt of his machine-gun in time with the music.
Right now Jamaica is about Bob Marley, then Bobsled and now it is bolt.
Talk-show host Laura Ingraham suggested that the governor was preparing to bolt the GOP.
The Governor won't be here for half an hour; bolt the door and have it out.
One had already been slain by a bolt, so that there were but four upon their feet.
Stand aside, Arnaud, lest you find a bolt through your gizzard.
I pray you to speed a bolt against yonder shield with all your force.
The bolt shown did not happen to suit, and the strangers again left us.bolt 2
© William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012
Old English bolt "short, stout arrow with a heavy head;" also "crossbow for throwing bolts," from Proto-Germanic *bultas (cf. Old Norse bolti , Danish bolt , Dutch bout , German Bolzen ), perhaps from PIE root *bheld- "to knock, strike" (cf. Lithuanian beldu "I knock," baldas "pole for striking").
from bolt (n.) in its various senses; from a crossbow arrow's quick flight comes the meaning "to spring, to make a quick start" (early 13c.). Via the notion of runaway horses, this came to mean "to leave suddenly" (early 19c.). Meaning "to gulp down food" is from 1794. The meaning "to secure by means of a bolt" is from 1580s. Related: Bolted ; bolting .
Copyright (C) 2007 by HarperCollins Publishers.
Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Большой англо-русский фразеологический словарь. - М.: «Русский язык-Медиа». . 2006 .Смотреть что такое "bolt" в других словарях:
Bolt — ist der Familienname folgender Personen: Bobby Bolt (* 1987), kanadischer Eishockeyspieler Bruce Bolt (1930–2005), US amerikanischer Seismologe Carol Bolt (1941–2000), kanadische Dramatikerin Christian Bolt (* 1972), Schweizer Bildhauer und Maler … Deutsch Wikipedia
Bolt — usually refers to a type of fastener.Bolt may refer to:Fasteners* A cap screw, as used in a bolted joint * Screw, a cylindrical threaded fastener * Deadbolt, a kind of locking mechanism * Bolt (climbing), an anchor point used in rock… … Wikipedia
Bolt — Bolt, n. [AS. bolt; akin to Icel. bolti, Dan. bolt, D. bout, OHG. bolz, G. bolz, bolzen; of uncertain origin.] 1. A shaft or missile intended to be shot from a crossbow or catapult, esp. a short, stout, blunt headed arrow; a quarrel; an arrow, or … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
bolt — bolt; bolt·in; bolt·less; say·bolt; shack·bolt; un·bolt; bolt·er; dog·bolt; thun·der·bolt; … English syllables
bolt — ► NOUN 1) a long metal pin with a head that screws into a nut, used to fasten things together. 2) a bar that slides into a socket to fasten a door or window. 3) the sliding piece of the breech mechanism of a rifle. 4) a short, heavy arrow shot… … English terms dictionary
bolt — bolt1 [bōlt] n. [ME & OE, akin to Ger bolzen < IE base * bheld , to knock, strike] 1. a short, heavy, often blunt arrow shot from a crossbow 2. a flash of lightning; thunderbolt 3. a sudden dash or movement 4. a sliding bar for locking a door … English World dictionary
Bolt — Bolt, v. t. [imp. & p. p.
Bolt — (b[=o]lt; 110), v. i. 1. To start forth like a bolt or arrow; to spring abruptly; to come or go suddenly; to dart; as, to bolt out of the room. [1913 Webster] This Puck seems but a dreaming dolt, . . . And oft out of a bush doth bolt. Drayton.… … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
Bolt — Bolt, Beranek y Newman Saltar a navegación, búsqueda BBN Technologies (originalmente Bolt, Beranek and Newman) es una empresa de alta tecnología que provee servicios de investigación y desarrollo. BBN está situada junto a Fresh Pond en Cambridge … Wikipedia Español
bolt — [n1] lock; part of lock bar, brad, catch, coupling, dowel, fastener, lag, latch, lock, nut, padlock, peg, pin, pipe, rivet, rod, screw, skewer, sliding bar, spike, stake, staple, stud; concepts 470,471,680 Ant. key bolt [n2] flash; projectile… … New thesaurus
Bolt — Bolt, adv. In the manner of a bolt; suddenly; straight; unbendingly. [1913 Webster] [He] came bolt up against the heavy dragoon. Thackeray. [1913 Webster]
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